The following style guide highlights editorial style rules for Nazareth College communications. These standards are to be followed when writing and editing copy for any and all communications from the College. Such communications include, but are not limited to, print publications (letters, press releases, newsletters, etc.) and web content.
In general, Nazareth College publications follow the guidelines in The Associated Press (AP) Stylebook. For entries not listed here or in AP, please refer to a good reference dictionary (e.g., Webster’s New World College Dictionary).
The Nazareth College Style Guide will be updated periodically.
The College’s deviations from AP style are denoted by an asterisk.
Insert only ONE space after the punctuation at the end of a sentence.
Correct: This is a style guide. Please refer to it often.
Incorrect: This is a style guide. Please refer to it often.
In running text, spell out and don't capitalize: bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctorate. But capitalize Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science; however, lowercase the area of study. Example: Bachelor of Arts in history; Master of Science in chemistry.
Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc., but there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science.
Also: an associate degree (no possessive).
In very formal references, use baccalaureate degrees.
When abbreviating, use periods: B.A., M.S., Ph.D., B.F.A.
For a graduate of Nazareth, put the graduation year(s) before the degree: Jane Smith '10, '12G, D.P.T.
Lowercase except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives: the department of history, the history department, the department of English, the English department, or when department is part of the official and formal name: University of Connecticut Department of Medicine.
See AP entry for details. In general, confine capitalization to formal titles used directly before an individual's name.
Do not capitalize an occupational designation, only a true title: We met President Obama. The speaker will be artist Heather Butterfield.
Exception to the rule: Titles after names can be capitalized at the designer's discretion (for visual appearance), when listed in a conference program or invitation.
Terms designating academic years are lowercased: first-year, freshman, sophomore, junior, senior.
Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd., and St. only with a numbered address: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a number: Pennsylvania Avenue. Lowercase and spell out when used alone or with more than one street name: Massachusetts and Pennsylvania avenues.
Do not italicize. Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man who has attended a school. Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) for similar references to a woman. Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women.
Use the ampersand when it is part of a company or group's formal name: Procter & Gamble, Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway.
Note the plural Arts, and that both words are capitalized.
In general, introduce a bulleted list with a colon. Capitalize the first letter of the first word of each bulleted list item. Bulleted items should be in parallel construction. End bulleted sentences with periods (not semicolons or commas), and do not punctuate the end of fragments.
Example of bulleted list of sentences:
Additional information for applicants:
Example of bulleted list of fragments:
There are a number of things to keep in mind when writing a style guide:
Spell out the word cents and lowercase, using numerals for amounts less than a dollar: 5 cents, 12 cents. Use the $ sign and decimal system for larger amounts: $1.01, $2.50.
Capitalize the word college when it refers specifically to Nazareth College. Currently, the College is undergoing renovations. A college education is considered necessary nowadays.
There are many rules regarding commas; see AP for a comprehensive discussion. Here are some common instances when commas are, or are not, used.
A comma should always be used between each element in a series: He nominated Tom, Dick, and Harry. (Exception to AP, which does not insert a comma before the conjunction in a simple series.)
Do not use a comma before Jr. or Sr. after a person's name: John Smith Jr.
The of is necessary. Never use a couple tomatoes or a similar phrase. The phrase takes a plural verb in constructions such as: A couple of tomatoes were stolen.
em dash, en dash, hyphen. See AP entry for details. However, when using dashes to off-set a section of a sentence, do not use two hyphens. Instead, use an em dash symbol. (From the "Word" menu at the top of the screen: Insert > Symbol > pull down screen: "normal text.")
Correct: The workshop included a variety of tips—from job hunting to networking—for recent graduates.
Incorrect: The workshop included a variety of tips - from job hunting to networking - for recent graduates.
Always use Arabic figures, without st, nd, rd, or th.
Use Dr. in first reference as a formal title before the name of an individual who holds a doctor of dental surgery, doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of pediatric medicine degree.
If appropriate in context, Dr. also may be used on first reference before the names of individuals who hold other types of doctoral degrees. However, because the public frequently identifies Dr. only with physicians, care should be taken to assure the individual's specialty is stated in first or second reference. The only exception would be a story in which the context left no doubt that the person was a dentist, psychologist, chemist, historian, etc.
Always lowercase. Use whole figures without the cents whenever possible: $5, not $5.00. Use figures and the $ sign in all except casual references or amounts without a figure: The book cost $4. Dad, please give me a dollar. Dollars are flowing overseas.
The first is a noun, the second an adjective. She received a good education at a reputable educational institute.
Means for example. Use sparingly. Follow with a comma: She bought many things today (e.g., clothes, shoes, food).
( ... ) See AP entry for comprehensive explanation. In general, treat an ellipses as a three-letter word, constructed with three periods and two spaces, as shown here.
Short form of electronic mail. Per AP, all "e-" terms are lowercase and hyphenated, except for email.
Avoid using. If necessary, list at least three examples/items/listings before following with "etc."
Incorrect: He teaches philosophy, etc.
Correct: She studied math, chemistry, physics, etc.
See AP entry. Avoid overuse.
In general, use fewer for individual items, less for bulk or quantity.
Incorrect: The trend is toward more machines and less people. (People in this sense refers to individuals.)
Incorrect: She was fewer than 60 years old. (Years in this sense refers to a period of time, not individual years.)
Correct: Fewer than 10 applicants called. (Individuals.)
Correct: I had less than $50 in my pocket. (An amount.) But: I had fewer than 50 $1 bills in my pocket. (Individual items.)
Means that is (from the Latin "id est"). Equivalent to that is to say or in other words, and should be offset with a comma. Example: He didn't do very well on his exam (i.e., he failed).
Writers or speakers imply in the words they use. A listener or reader infers something from the words.
Make with tab button, not by hitting the space bar.
Lowercase. Also, intranet. As a colleague once said, "You wouldn't capitalize telephone, so why internet?"
Do not capitalize academic majors, minors, programs, specializations, or concentrations (biology, women's studies) except for languages and titles containing geographic locations (English, Spanish, African studies, Asian studies).
Course titles are capitalized: Modern Europe II: 1890-Present, Management 410: Management Ethics
Examples: January 1972 was a cold month. Jan. 2 was the coldest day of the month. His birthday is May 8. Feb. 14, 1987, was the target date.
Use instead of over when discussing amounts.
It generally refers to spatial relationships: The plane flew over the city.
is preferred with numerals: Their salaries went up more than $20 a week.
See AP entry for details. In general:
One word and lowercase in all cases for the computer connection term. Also, offline.
Use figures and the word percent for numbers expressing percentages: 95 percent. In financially oriented copy, it is acceptable to use figures with the percent sign: 95%.
For a comprehensive explanation, see AP listing.
Capitalize only if the room has been named: 1924 Room, Golisano Academic Center, room 165.
The abbreviation for the French respondez s'il vous plait, it means please reply. Please RSVP is redundant. Instead: RSVP by calling ..., Please respond by calling ...
Lowercase spring, summer, fall, winter and derivatives such as springtime unless part of a formal name (Winter Olympics, Nazareth College Spring Fest), or as part of a heading or chart.
Nazareth has three schools: the School of Health and Human Services (SHHS), the School of Management (SOM), and the School of Education (SOE). Capitalize school when it refers to a specific school: The School was founded a few years ago.
When to use the with school initials:
Use one space (not two) after the punctuation at the end of a sentence:
Back in the typewriter days, two spaces were the standard between sentences. But on a computer, you should only use one.
In general, refer to AP entry. Use figures without parentheses: 585-389-2499. The form for toll-free numbers: 800-111-1000. Do not use periods between parts of a phone number (incorrect: 585.389.2499).
If extension numbers are given: ext. 2, ext. 364, ext. 4071. Note the space between ext. and the number. Not necessary to use a comma to separate the main number from the extension (different from AP).
According to AP, use theater unless the proper name is Theatre: Shubert Theatre. In general, use theater to describe the building and/or physical space and theatre when referring to the theatre arts program at Nazareth.
Use figures except for noon and midnight. Use a colon to separate hours from minutes: 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 3:30 p.m. Write a.m. and p.m. in lowercase, with periods between the letters. Note the space between the numerals and the letters: She ate at 6 p.m. The event takes place from 8 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.
See academic professional titles.
Italicize titles of books, periodicals, newspapers, plays, motion pictures, television and radio programs, and long poems and musical compositions. Put titles of songs, poems, TV episodes, short stories, and newspaper and magazine articles in quotation marks.
Not towards. Upward, not upwards.
It means one of a kind. It does not take a qualifier: Do not describe something as very unique, rather unique, and/or most unique.
When the URL does not fit entirely on one line, break it into two or more lines without adding a hyphen or other punctuation mark.
There is no need to italicize or underline URLs when they appear in text. (The underline should only be used on the actual websites, to show the user that the text is an active hyperlink.)
Ranking per the magazine's policy, the first reference to this publication should be U.S. News & World Report. Note: U.S. News is two words, and is represented by an ampersand symbol, and report is singular.
For secondary use, U.S. News (italicized, with a space between words).
Or the web.
Use figures, without commas: 1975. Use commas only with a month and a day: Dec. 18, 1994, was a special day. Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries: the 1890s, the 1800s. Years are the lone exception to the general rule in numerals that a figure is not used to start a sentence: 1976 was a good year.
When abbreviating years to two digits, add an apostrophe before the numerals: Blizzard of '78, the '60s.
When referencing a span of years, use an en-dash and use all four numbers of the second year: 1979-1991.
When listing Nazareth student and alumni graduation years, note the apostrophe: John Smith '85. To denote students/alumni obtaining/with graduate degrees, use a G after the year of graduation: Anne Klein '76G.